Accessibility

Making your Medallia applications usable by as many people as possible

Accessible products enable users with disabilities to interact with Medallia products and features with the same degree of success as users without disabilities. Accessibility considers users with various types of disabilities. For example, accessible products improve layout and visibility, and permit assistive technology to read and answer forms for customers who have blindness, low vision, and limited movement.

Important: Follow the best practices in this topic to ensure maintenance of product accessibility when customizing your Medallia Experience Cloud implementation.

WCAG guidelines and other resources

Medallia strives to ensure that its products and functionality meet industry-standard Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), which provide standards for making web content more accessible to people with disabilities. For more information about WGAG, including conformance criteria, see the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Overview on the World Wide Web Consortium website.

Medallia offers several accessible product templates, and continues to work on expanding the range of accessible product templates. Medallia Experience Cloud offers web-based survey templates, which are viewed by your customers. Experience Cloud also offers core front-line reporting modules within next generation reporting, which are viewed your employees. Section 508 accessibility requirements are consistent with, and covered by, WCAG standards.

The following Medallia products and features are currently accessible by WCAG 2.1 AA standards:

  • Medallia for Digital SDK
  • Medallia for Digital web-based survey templates
  • Medallia Experience Cloud core-platform survey templates

  • Experience Cloud report module templates (within Medallia Alchemy Experience Reporting)
  • Medallia Mobile

  • Medallia Voices

Any changes you make to a template have the potential to violate one or more accessibility standards or regulations. This includes, but is not limited to, such things as adding HTML or other markup, adding or changing CSS font or color styling, and adding images. If you customize templates to reflect your company's branding and content guidelines, you might need to make design choices to maintain accessibility. For example, custom colors must have sufficient color contrast, images require alternative text, and any custom HTML or styling must be accessible.

For detailed information about common accessibility regulations and standards, see:

General best practices

Use the following best practices to guide your decisions as you implement aspects of Experience Cloud:

  • The Medallia Experience Cloud v7 survey design requires no additional customization. However, if you want to make changes, first consult v7 documentation.
  • In surveys, do not disable the Skip to Content button.

  • Avoid HTML overrides in surveys.

  • For general guidance about customizing reports, see CSS styling, below.
  • Provide sufficient contrast between elements. For detailed guidance, see the W3C page about Contrast.
  • Do not rely on color solely to convey important information.

  • Be mindful about color choices to ensure compatibility with accessibility guidelines.

  • All interactive elements (such as buttons) in templates include a focus indicator (such as a border around a button on hover). If you change the color of an interactive element, be sure that the focus indicator is still visible.

  • Computers often have accessibility settings to change the display for low-vision users. The settings can increase the contrast, invert the colors, and make everything gray scale. Use high-contrast to see if a survey is readable, especially for images.
  • Large text is that which is greater than 18pt normal or 14pt bold. It is best to have a ratio of 4.5:1. For a good discussion of why, see What’s ‘large text’ in WCAG 2.0 parlance.
  • Always test your changes for adherence to accessibility guidelines. Refer to Accessibility validation tools, below.

CSS styling

Cascading style sheet (CSS) styles define how to render the content on the user’s device, such as a visual browser, screen reader, or visual browser. On a web page or form, CSS styling is performed with stylesheets or embedded in-line with the style attribute. For Experience Cloud surveys, stylesheets are hosted on the Survey Engine server, and are generated by the Base CSS and Theme CSS properties of the Design screen.

Restriction: Do not use in-line styles because they can easily violate accessibility guidelines. Instead, include all CSS definitions in the Theme CSS stylesheet.

When defining CSS for a survey:

  • Required:
    • Ensure documents are readable without style sheets. Use add-on developer tools for your browser to disable the styles.
    • Ensure the reading order of content and elements are correct when viewed without style sheets
    • Provide text equivalents for icon fonts. For example, when showing an alert or warning symbol as a font, also include text that describes the condition. See Icon fonts and user-defined style sheets on the JuicyStudio site for details.
    • Ensure containing elements allow text resize.
    • Ensure screen reader specific content is rendered off-screen rather than hidden or not displayed. For example, using position elements to render the content outside the browser window. This usually does not add scroll bars to the window.
    • For decorative images (ones that do not provide content), use background images.
  • Avoid:
    • Using ::before and ::after, pseudo classes for non-decorative content because it is not recognized by screen readers.
    • Background images behind text, which can cause contrast issues.
    • Size declarations on any portion of the box model (see Note below for more on CSS) because they all contribute to the overall size of the element.
  • Do not use:
    • In-line styles (style= attribute).
    • Title (title=) attributes for textual content. Using screen reader, all the titles will be spoken so redundant title should be removed (from the link, not the image. As a rule of thumb, do not use title attributes on links or form elements or table cells or other elements because that can lead to screen-reader users hearing those announcements twice.
    • CSS to render content or provide functionality because screen readers ignore CSS.
    • Absolute units (such as in, cm, mm, pt, and pc) because these are intended for print media. Instead, use relative units (such as ems, percentages, or larger), or do not use units and let the agent use the default units. This lets the user to zoom and enlarge the content and provide proper wrapping and formatting.

See W3C School's CSS Introduction for an in depth discussion of CSS.

Tip: Another class of browsers called speech-browsers or aural-browsers can read CSS specific to speech. Unlike a screen-reader, which ignores CSS, these browsers can use different voices, change pitch or volume, and spell words, all based on the HTML and its associated styles. For information about using these styles, see the W3C CSS Speech Module.

Images

Any image that conveys content must have an equivalent alternative description. The text must succinctly describe the element without being too verbose. When using an <img> tag, always include an alt attribute that describes the image. If the image is used in a link or some other user action, also describe the intended action. For example, if a survey uses a link and image to start the survey, the HTML might look like this:

<img name="Get_Started" alt="Start the survey."/>

For decorative images (those that do not provide content), use CSS background images instead so screen readers can ignore it. For example:

.brand_sparkle {
  background-image: url('/static/images/brand_sparkle.png');
  background-repeat: no-repeat;
  background-position: right top;
}

Then, in the HTML element, reference the image appropriately, similar to this:

<div class="brand_sparkle"></div>

When using images in surveys, note the following best practices:

  • If the image is for decoration only, use CSS background images. When the image cannot be rendered as a background image, leave the alt description empty (alt="") to hide it from screen readers.
  • If the image provides content, use an <img> tag and include descriptive alternative text with the alt attribute. Further:
    • The image must have sufficient contrast to be legible by users with low-visibility.
    • When the image is the sole content of a link, describe the target, not the image.
    • When the image content describes a specific state (such as an icon that indicates incorrect input), describe the state instead of the image.
    • Avoid alt text descriptions that duplicate the adjacent text. For example, if text on the survey says Stop and it is immediately followed by an image link, make the image text more descriptive, such as, Terminate the survey.

When translating alt text, note that you might find images in the following areas:

  • Email – There is no specific automated tool to validate if an email is accessible. Typically, an email should be checked with a variety of assistive technologies (such as VoiceOver, JAWS, and NVDA) in multiple environments, (such as iPhone, tablet, desktop, Gmail, Outlook, Outlook in Office 365, IE, Firefox, and so on). Generally, the less complicated an email is, the more easily all users will be able to get to the information.

    The alt text on the image references in the HTML email must also be translated as part of the translation of the overall HTML email in Translations.

    When offering multiple languages in emails, use the multilang template and proper language conditioning to ensure scalability. Update the multilang template to add a phrase before the language links to say Available languages or Choose a different language.

    Warning: Multi-language email links do not work on Apple Mail on mobile devices (though they do work on Apple Mail on desktops). Sometimes double-tapping on the link activates the control.
  • HTML elements – Images embedded in your survey.
Note: For more information about using alt text, see W3C H37: Using alt attributes on img element.

Accessibility validation tools

The following tools are useful for testing accessibility and color contrast:

Accessibility Insights
This browser extension reviews your site, shows accessibility errors, provides suggestions to fix proplems, and includes the WCAG specification.
aXe (Chrome)
This highly configurable Chrome extension helps find accessibility defects on web pages.
Web Accessibility Evaluation Tool (WAVE)
This reporting tool evaluates web pages and reports on elements that fail to achieve accessibility. This tool is provided by WebAIM and is available as a web site for evaluating public pages, and it is available as an extension for Chrome to evaluate any page displayed in the browser.
Color Contrast Analyzer (Chrome)
This extension from NC State University analyzes the contrast of text and images to indicate areas of high and low contrast.
Color Contrast Analyzer (Firefox)
This Firefox browser extension lists the text elements on a page that are not accessible.
WCAG Color Contrast plug in for Firefox
A Firefox extension that allows allows you to click on a page element and see the contrast ratio.
Contrast Analyzer
Application for Mac and Windows that analyzes the legibility of text on a page.
Color Contrast plug-in for Mozilla
WCAG Contrast analyzer plugin.
Color Contrast Checker
WebAIM web page for validating color contrast.

Common feedback

Third party accessibility audits might result in feedback for accessibility improvements, primarily in surveys. Some feedback can be corrected using the guidelines provided in this topic (such as changes to color and contrast, image alt text, and so on), while other feedback might be targeted towards the underlying structure. Accessibility guidelines are often open to interpretation, especially with regards to how the guidelines are followed. Below are some common observations, followed by the recommended Medallia response:

ARIA landmark is not used to identify header section of the page.
Because Experience Cloud surveys use headers and footers, the do not necessarily need role = landmark. Including ARIA landmarks would result in duplication of content.
The text "One or more items on this page require your attention." is not provided in container with role="main". It is placed out of landmark role main.
Originally, error messages were not considered to be part of the main content of the page. Medallia recognizes that this behavior is not as ideal, and will develop incorporating the error message inside role="main". Given the uncommon use of landmark navigation within a survey versus tabbing, this is not considered a WCAG failure.
The "Next" and "Back" buttons are not included in main region(role="main") of the page.
The buttons are not part of the main section of the page. They are part of the navigation.
The three links present in footer section of the page are not grouped under list.
From WebAIM, our accessibility vendor: This is a good idea if you have a grouping of links that essentially form a list. This can facilitate navigation and a screen reader would provide an indication of how many items are in the list. The links in the footer would be an <ol>, rather than <ul>. But if items are not visually presented as a list with bullets or numbers, there is not a WCAG requirement to mark them up as a list.
The radio buttons are coded using unordered list.
Accessibility best practice is to have all radio buttons in an unordered list so that the screen reader recognizes the group as a list.
<nav> tag is used for "Next" and "Back" buttons present in the page.
These are navigation buttons, and appear as designed.
Page contents are not announced by screen reader in a logical manner: screen reader is not announcing the text "Powered by Medallia".
This is intended behavior and deemed as accessible because the "Powered by Medallia" logo does have associated text read by the screen reader ("Medallia"). If that is not fully in line with the client's accessibility standards, they can use a custom footer.
Form elements do not have descriptive labels to identify the purpose of the element.
Fieldset/Legend is intentionally used across all survey elements to ensure the survey taker can consistently navigate between both question and text elements.
A visible focus indicator is not present around the "Next" and "Back" buttons when they receive keyboard focus.
V7 by default for the Next button uses the arrow key that appears as the visual focus indicator. If needed, a border on-hover can be added using CSS.
Screen reader is announcing the legend twice for each and every question.
This might be browser and screen-reader dependent. Question text is incorporated into aria-label and fieldset to ensure cross-browser compatibility. (They are read once in some screen readers, while other screen readers read twice).
The web page contains only logo in header section of the page. The skip link does not add any additional benefit for the user.
Medallia takes a standardized approach, providing the Skip to Content link in all surveys.
The label for text box which appears when user selects the Other radio button could be more descriptive.
Rename the Other option to either Other, please specify or Other Reason.
We should add hidden text in HTML to ensure that survey takers using Apple VoiceOver hear numbers like 4000 as Four thousand rather than Four zero zero zero, even if they configure the setting  Read numbers as: Digits .
The hidden text would actually create an atypical experience for these users. This type of content should be presented in the formatting that makes the most sense visually, then the screen reader can interpret it based on their experience and settings, and can explore it letter by letter. Adding the off-screen text is overly complex and potentially introduces other issues, primarily having two versions of the number that could be accessed.
On submitting a form with invalid data, an error message is displayed, but as the error message is not in the label tag, the screen reader is not announcing it to the user.
The user is taken to a summary error message at the top of the page. The user can then use the tab key to progress through each question. When a user lands on the question with an error, the screen reader identifies the error.
Tabbing in Firefox proceeds through every number in a rating scale, while tabbing in Chrome the selects different ratings.
This is standard behavior for radio buttons in Firefox. It proceeds through all available radio buttons in a set until one is activated. After a radio button is selected, tabbing navigates only to that selected radio button. You are not prohibited from navigating by arrow keys to choose a radio button from the set. The intent of this behavior is to allow users to explore all of the radio button options by tabbing without actually selecting one. Because this is standard behavior for Firefox, this does not pose an accessibility issue.